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Celestial Navigation
rofessor Robert Bergantino, of the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology at Montana Tech in Butte, is a highly respected student of the mathematical skills Lewis studied in Philadelphia in 1803, and the methods of celestial observation that the captains employed during the expedition for the purpose of determining latitudes and longitudes at 105 different "remarkeable places." In the following essays Prof. Bergantino first illuminates the content and significance of the Astronomy Notebook that Robert Patterson wrote for Lewis's instruction, then re-examines nine of the data sets the captains produced from their celestial observations. He will conclude this study with illustrated explanations of the observation procedures Lewis and Clark utilized.

This project has been supported in part by a grant from the National Park Service's Challenge-Cost Share Program.

Jefferson's Debt Paid At Last
Patterson's Astronomy Notebook
Observations at the Kansas River
Fort Mandan Observations
Mouth of Marias River
Locating the Headwaters
Where was Fortunate Camp?
The Snake Joins the Columbia
Observations at Clearwater Canoe Camp
Observations at Station Camp
Observations at Camp Chopunnish

From Discovering Lewis & Clark ®, http://www.lewis-clark.org © 1998-2014
by The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Washburn, North Dakota.
Journal excerpts are from The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary E. Moulton
13 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983-2001)