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Natural HistoryTrees and ShrubsCottonwoods - 3 Species
Collateral Cost

Senior Citizen

photo: Cottonwood grovehis venerable elder of the local cottonwood community has survived perhaps a full century of the westerly winds that sweep down Lolo Canyon, and now stands 115 feet tall. Cottonwood trees don't like shade, so its neighbors, with their youthful light gray bark, have shed their lower limbs to conserve energy as they reach for their share of sunshine.

--Joseph Mussulman, 1999

Collateral Cost

From Discovering Lewis & Clark ®, http://www.lewis-clark.org © 1998-2014
by The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, Washburn, North Dakota.
Journal excerpts are from The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, edited by Gary E. Moulton
13 vols. (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983-2001)